Tip 22: all the casting you'll need14 November 11. [link] PDF version
purpose: still less obsolete cruft in your life
There are two (2) reasons to cast a variable from one type to another.
First: when dividing two numbers, an integer divided by an integer will always return an integer, so the following statements will be true:
4/2 == 2 3/2 == 1
That second one is the source of lots of errors. It's easy to fix: if i is an integer, then i + 0.0 is a floating-point number that matches the integer. Don't forget the parentheses, but that solves your problem:
4/(2+0.0) == 2.0 3/(2+0.0) == 1.5
You can also use the casting form:
4/(float)2 == 2.0 3/(float)2 == 1.5
I'm partial to the add-zero form, for æsthetic reasons; you're welcome to prefer the cast-to-float form. But make a habit of one or the other every time you reach for that / key, because this is the source of many, many errors. And not just in C; lots of other languages also like to insist that int / int → int. Not that that makes it OK.
Second: array indices have to be integers. It's the law (C standard §184.108.40.206), and GCC will complain if you send a floating-point index. So, you may have to cast to an integer, even if you know that in your situation you will always have an integer-valued expression.
4/(float)2 == 2.0 //this is float, not an int. mylist[4/(float)2]; //So this is an error: floating-point index mylist[(int)(4/(float)2)]; //This works; take care with the parens int index=4/(float)2;//This form also works, mylist[index]; //and is more legible.
Now that I've covered both of the reasons to cast in C, I can point out the reasons to not bother. Notice that the index variable above was an integer, but the right-hand value was a floating-point number. C auto-casts in this case, truncating down to the right value. If it's valid to assign an item of one type to an item of another type, then C will do it for you without your having to tell it to with an explicit cast; if it's not valid, then you'll have to write a function to do the conversion anyway.
C++ isn't like this: you have to explicitly cast in all cases. Fortunately, you're writing in C, so you can ignore C++ tutorials that tell you to explicitly cast. And as a broad rule that universally works for me: don't bother with anything that uses C/C++ in the title.
In the 1970s and 80s, malloc returned a char* pointer, and had to be cast (unless you were allocating a string), with a form like:
//don't bother with this sort of redundancy: float* list = (float) malloc(list_length * sizeof(float));
You don't have to do this anymore, because malloc now gives you a void* pointer, which the compiler will comfortably auto-cast to anything.
If you check the examples above, you'll see that I even gave you options to avoid the
casting syntax for the two legitimate reasons to cast: adding 0.0 and declaring an integer
variable for your array indices. Bear in mind the existence of the casting form
var_type2 = (type2) var_type1, because it might come in handy some day, and in a
few tips we'll get to declarations that mimic this form. But for the most part,
explicit type casting is just redundancy that clutters the page.