Tip 8: Use here scripts17 October 11.
level: intermediate POSIX
purpose: fewer temp files floating around
I'll relate this to C in a few episodes, but this is a general feature of POSIX-compliant shells that you can use for Python, Perl, or whatever else. In fact, if you want to have a multilingual script, this is an easy way to do it. Do some parsing in Perl, do the math in C, then have R produce the pretty pictures, and have it all in one text file.
Here's a Python example. Normally, you'd tell Python to run a script via
You can give the file name '-' to use standard in as the input file:
echo "print 'hi.'" | python '-'
[Subtip: We need '-' and not just - to indicate that this is plain text and not
introducing a switch like the c in python -c "print 'Hi'". Many programs follow a custom that two dashes indicate
that they should stop reading switches and read subsequent inputs plain. Thus
echo "print 'hi.'" | python -- -
also works, but is the sort of thing that scares people.]
You could, in theory, put some lengthy scripts on the command line via echo, but
you'll quickly see that there are a lot of little undesired parsings going on--you might need
\"hi\" instead of just
"hi", for example.
Thus, the here script, which does no parsing at all. Try this:
python '-' <<"XXXX" lines=2 print "\nThis script is %i lines long.\n" %(lines,) XXXX
The XXXX is any string you'd like; EOF is also popular, and --- looks good as long as you get the dash count to match at top and bottom. When the shell sees your chosen string alone on a line, then it will stop sending the script to the program's stdin. That's all the parsing that happens.
This tip is a standard shell feature, and so should work on any POSIX system. I know because the POSIX standard is online and is not all that painful to read, as standards go. Unfortunately, I'm not sure how to link to a certain line, so you'll have to go searching to verify my promise that Here Documents are standard shell features.
There's also a variant that begins with
<<-. Search the standard or ask man bash for details.
As another variant, there's a difference between
<<XXXX. In the second
version the shell parses certain elements, which means you can have the shell insert the
$shell_variables for you.
Replies: A comment
on Sunday, April 15th, awhan said
thanks for the tip ... i foolishly thought before that EOF is a special token. but i wonder why not #!